TESOL methodologies, curriculum and syllabus design, materials development, assessment, and L2 teacher education
We know that there are cross-cultural differences in psychological variables, such as individualism/
collectivism. But it has not been clear which of these variables show relatively the greatest
differences. The Survey of World Views project operated from the premise that such issues
are best addressed in a diverse sampling of countries representing a majority of the world’s
population, with a very large range of item-content. Data were collected online from 8,883
individuals (almost entirely college students based on local publicizing efforts) in 33 countries
that constitute more than two third of the world’s population, using items drawn from measures
of nearly 50 variables. This report focuses on the broadest patterns evident in item data. The
largest differences were not in those contents most frequently emphasized in cross-cultural
psychology (e.g., values, social axioms, cultural tightness), but instead in contents involving
religion, regularity-norm behaviors, family roles and living arrangements, and ethnonationalism.
Content not often studied cross-culturally (e.g., materialism, Machiavellianism, isms dimensions,
moral foundations) demonstrated moderate-magnitude differences. Further studies are needed
to refine such conclusions, but indications are that cross-cultural psychology may benefit from
casting a wider net in terms of the psychological variables of focus.
Assessment is inseparably associated with ESL/EFL curriculum/course objectives and instructional techniques. Achieving learning outcomes indispensably depends on proper alignment of objectives, instruction, and assessment. Assessment literacy provides essential information on dealing with the varied facets of assessment modifying objectives, enhancing instruction, and facilitating learning. Hence, to be competent in assisting learners to achieve learning outcomes, ESL/EFL teachers need acquire assessment literacy in addition to knowledge of curriculum/course objectives and instructional strategies. This paper examines the pertinence of assessment literacy to ESL/EFL teachers.