Mohammad Ibrahim Khalad Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology

Research Interest

Migration and Masculinities, Intersectionality and Islamophobic discourse, Child Rights, Environmental Justice, etc.

Journals Papers

Ambiguous positionalities: Bangladeshi migrant men in The Hague

Khalad, M.I. (2017). Ambiguous positionalities: Bangladeshi migrant men in The Hague (No. 625). ISS Working Paper Series / General Series (Vol. 625, pp. 1–52). International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University (ISS). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/95705


In the context of post 9/11, Muslim migrant men in the Europe come under scrutiny where their masculinity is perceived as problematic. They are seen as patriarchal, traditional and conservative within their family, and as potential political/terrorist threat for the society. With this context in mind, this research wishes to understand how Bangladeshi migrant men in The Hague, Netherlands, experience process of marginalisation resulting from the post 9/11 perceptions. I have argued that the process of marginalisation for Bangladeshi migrant men in The Hague is embedded in the intersection of gender, race, colour, class, religion and ethnicity. However, these intersections are uneven, complex and dynamic. Power relations and identities that give them advantage is one context, make them vulnerable in another context. Their darker skin colour and South Asian facial features, for example, save them from direct Islamophobia. Their low-class position protects them from direct competition with white Dutch men. However, once their religious affiliations are disclosed, they are shunned by Dutch neighbours, and their socio-economic position brings them in competition with other migrants. I have focused on three social spheres – the workplace, the family and the wider Dutch society – to understand positionality of Bangladeshi migrant men in relation to other migrant communities as well as white Dutch men. The results of my research show an ambiguous and complex scenario where Bangladeshi migrant men take part in some racist discourses of Dutch society while rejecting others, create negative stereotypes of other migrant communities while claiming some similarities with them, question family dedication of other Muslim communities while going to their mosque. Furthermore, Bangladeshi migrant men negotiate their marginalised masculinity by stressing their breadwinner role, good manners and family dedication, and judge themselves better family men than other migrant and white Dutch men. At the same time, Bangladeshi migrant men live in a ‘Bangladesh bubble’ where their life is organised around links and relationships with people from Bangladesh, and with other Bangladeshi migrants. While this means a (self)isolation from Dutch society, this bubble allows them to ignore hegemonic notions and practices of white Dutch masculinity in Netherlands, and creates their own ideals of masculinity. Ultimately, they stood out as ideal men, better than white Dutch and other migrants. This showed us that the process of marginalisation is context specific. Men from different position face and negotiate marginalisation differently.

From Child Right Approach to Family Centered Approach: Crisis of Development Organization to understand children’s reality

Khalad, Mohammad Ibrahim and Khanam, Maksuda 2013 From Child Right Approach to Family Centered Approach: Crisis of Development Organization to understand children’s reality. (In Bengali) Nrivijnana Patrika (Journal of Anthropology), Vol. 18.

Science and The Politics of Global Climate Change

Khalad, Mohammad Ibrahim 2012 Science and The Politics of Global Climate Change. (In Bengali) Nrivijnana Patrika (Journal of Anthropology), Vol. 17.

Enclave and The Crisis of Territory Centered State Identity.

Khalad, Mohammad Ibrahim 2010 Enclave and The Crisis of Territory Centered State Identity. (In Bengali) Nrivijnana Patrika (Journal of Anthropology), Vol. 15.

Seminars

Right base approach versus child centered approach: Tension in Development Agency to Understand Children’s reality.

Institution: Faculty of Social Science, Jahangirnagar University and University Grant Commission, Bangladesh
Project Title: Right base approach versus child centered approach: Tension in Development Agency to Understand Children’s reality.
Duration: July 2011 – June 2012
Position: Research Supervisor
Key Findings: Understanding of childhood is not same around the world. But UNCRC categorize children as a homogenous category and set some policy to give their rights. But these idea of right are based on western perception of child. So when a development worker in Bangladesh try to work with children, face enormous problem. Their project categorize child as an individual human being but country like Bangladesh doesn’t perceive children individually. Here children rights is affiliated with their family and kin group. So it become very difficult for NGO and other development worker to implement child right project. For that reason, local NGO worker develop a method called child centered approach,, which aim to develop family but give priority to children. This research find out that the method called child centered approach is limited only on field work. Because of donor-client relationship NGO tend to write report where child right perceive as an individual human right.

State Identity Crisis of Rohingya People: An Anthropological Overview.

Institution: Faculty of Social Science, Jahangirnagar University and University Grant Commission, Bangladesh
Project Title: State Identity Crisis of Rohingya People: An Anthropological Overview.


Duration: June 2012 – July 2013
Position: Research Supervisor
Key Findings: This research analyze identity crisis of Rohingya people who lived in border between Myanmar and Bangladesh. Key finding was that their crisis of state identity is deeply rooted with state formation on this area. They fight with British army against Japanese and Myanmar revolutionist. For that reason they perceive as an outsider of Myanmar Nationalism.

State, Society and Citizenship: Conceptualizing and Understanding from Poor Worker Perspective.

Institution: Faculty of Social Science, Jahangirnagar University and University Grant Commission, Bangladesh
Project Title: State, Society and Citizenship: Conceptualizing and Understanding from Poor Worker Perspective.
Duration: June 2010 – July 2011
Position: Research Supervisor
Key Findings: Concept of citizenship developed differently in post colonial country like Bangladesh from Europe. Here people affiliate their identity with society and kin relation so their conception of citizenship also related with that. For garment and tannery worker, citizenship is a concept where they demand their right as a member of society rather than member of a state.